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|Tested species reactivity||Mouse|
|Published species reactivity||Mouse, Human, Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||Recombinant mouse TNF-alpha produced in E. coli|
|Storage buffer||PBS with 125mM trehalose|
|Storage Conditions||4° C|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|ELISA (ELISA)||Assay Dependent|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||Assay Dependent|
|Neutralization (Neu)||Assay Dependent|
|Western Blot (WB)||Assay Dependent|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Metallic silver fragments cause massive tissue loss in the mouse brain.
AMC3012 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to investigate the effect of metallic silver particles on nervous tissues.
|Locht LJ,Pedersen MØ,Markholt S,Bibby BM,Larsen A,Penkowa M,Stoltenberg M,Rungby J||Basic and clinical pharmacology and toxicology (109:1)||2011|
Prenatal LPS increases inflammation in the substantia nigra of Gdnf heterozygous mice.
AMC3012 was used in immunohistochemistry to assess the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in age-related neuropathology
|Granholm AC,Zaman V,Godbee J,Smith M,Ramadan R,Umphlet C,Randall P,Bhat NR,Rohrer B,Middaugh LD,Boger HA||Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland) (21:330)||2011|
Enhancement of antigen-presenting cell surface molecules involved in cognate interactions by immunostimulatory DNA sequences.
AMC3012 was used in blocking assay to demonstrate that immunostimulatory DNA up-regulates a distinct profile of cell surface molecules on macrophages and B cells in vitro and in vivo.
|Martin-Orozco E,Kobayashi H,Van Uden J,Nguyen MD,Kornbluth RS,Raz E||International immunology (11:1111)||1999|
Focal cerebral ischemia in the TNFalpha-transgenic rat.
AMC3012 was used in immunohistochemistry to ascertain if chronic elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha affects infarct volume or cortical perfusion after focal cerebral ischemia
|Pettigrew LC,Kindy MS,Scheff S,Springer JE,Kryscio RJ,Li Y,Grass DS||Journal of neuroinflammation (5:null)||2008|
Fiber type specific expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-18 in human skeletal muscles.
AMC3012 was used in immunohistochemistry to report cytokine production by resting healthy human muscles
|Plomgaard P,Penkowa M,Pedersen BK||Exercise immunology review (11:53)||2006|
Metallothionein reduces central nervous system inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cell death following kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures.
AMC3012 was used in immunohistochemistry to assess metallothionein-induced neuroprotection during kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity
|Penkowa M,Florit S,Giralt M,Quintana A,Molinero A,Carrasco J,Hidalgo J||Journal of neuroscience research (79:522)||2005|
|Elevated levels of IL-18 in plasma and skeletal muscle in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.||Petersen AM,Penkowa M,Iversen M,Frydelund-Larsen L,Andersen JL,Mortensen J,Lange P,Pedersen BK||Lung (185:161)||2007|
An IFN-gamma-independent proinflammatory role of IL-18 in murine streptococcal cell wall arthritis.
AMC3012 was used in blocking or activating experiment to investigate the role of endogenous IL-8 in murine streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis.
|Joosten LA,van De Loo FA,Lubberts E,Helsen MM,Netea MG,van Der Meer JW,Dinarello CA,van Den Berg WB||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (165:6553)||2000|
APC1 protein; Cachectin; macrophage-derived; member 2; monocyte-derived; TNF; TNF superfamily; TNF-a; TNF-alpha; TNFA; Tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
DIF; Tnf; TNF-a; TNF-alpha; Tnfa; TNFalpha; Tnfsf1a; TNFSF2