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Immunofluorescence analysis of Alpha - Tubulin was done on 70% confluent log phase U-2 OS cells. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 minutes, permeabilized with 0.25% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, and blocked with 5% BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were labeled with Alpha - Tubulin Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (322500) at 0.5µg/mL in 1% BSA and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature and then labeled with Alexa Flour 488 Rabbit Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (A11059) at a dilution of 1:400 for 30 minutes at room temperature (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with SlowFade Gold Antifade Mountant with DAPI (S36938). F-actin (Panel c: red) was stained with Alexa Fluor 594 Phalloidin (A12381). Panel d is a merged image showing cytoplasmic localization. Panel e shows no primary antibody control. The images were captured at 20X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Dog, Rat, Mouse, Human, Chicken|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG1|
|Immunogen||Sarkosyl-resistant filament from sea urchin sperm axonemes.|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.4|
|Contains||0.1% sodium azide|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||5-10 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||5-10 ug/ml|
|Western Blot (WB)||1-3 ug/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Functional Interaction Between Na/K-ATPase and NMDA Receptor in Cerebellar Neurons.
32-2500 was used in western blot to study the relationship between Na/K-ATPase and NMDA receptor in cerebellar neurons
|Akkuratov EE,Lopacheva OM,Kruusmägi M,Lopachev AV,Shah ZA,Boldyrev AA,Liu L||Molecular neurobiology (52:1726)||2015|
Klf2 and Tfcp2l1, Two Wnt/β-Catenin Targets, Act Synergistically to Induce and Maintain Naive Pluripotency.
32-2500 was used in western blot to study how Wnt/β-catenin regulates embryonic stem cell fate.
|Qiu D,Ye S,Ruiz B,Zhou X,Liu D,Zhang Q,Ying QL||Stem cell reports (5:314)||2015|
Intracellular trafficking of AIP56, an NF-κB-cleaving toxin from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.
32-2500 was used in western blot to investigate the intracellular trafficking of an NF-kappaB-cleaving toxin from Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida
|Pereira LM,Pinto RD,Silva DS,Moreira AR,Beitzinger C,Oliveira P,Sampaio P,Benz R,Azevedo JE,dos Santos NM,do Vale A||Infection and immunity (82:5270)||2014|
H. pylori-encoded CagA disrupts tight junctions and induces invasiveness of AGS gastric carcinoma cells via Cdx2-dependent targeting of Claudin-2.
32-2500 was used in western blot to show that H. pylori-encoded CagA disrupts tight junctions and induces invasiveness of AGS gastric carcinoma cells via Cdx2-dependent targeting of Claudin-2.
|Song X,Chen HX,Wang XY,Deng XY,Xi YX,He Q,Peng TL,Chen J,Chen W,Wong BC,Chen MH||Cellular immunology (286:22)||2013|
Claudin-3 overexpression increases the malignant potential of colorectal cancer cells: roles of ERK1/2 and PI3K-Akt as modulators of EGFR signaling.
32-2500 was used in western blot to show that claudin-3 overexpression, regulated by EGF-activated ERK/2 and PI3K-Akt pathways, promotes the malignant potential of colorectal cancer cells.
|de Souza WF,Fortunato-Miranda N,Robbs BK,de Araujo WM,de-Freitas-Junior JC,Bastos LG,Viola JP,Morgado-Díaz JA||PloS one (8:null)||2013|
A gatekeeper residue for NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibition by MLN4924.
32-2500 was used in western blot to elucidate resistance to MLN4924.
|Toth JI,Yang L,Dahl R,Petroski MD||Cell reports (1:309)||2012|
|Chicken||Not Cited||Caspase-7 gene disruption reveals an involvement of the enzyme during the early stages of apoptosis.||Korfali N,Ruchaud S,Loegering D,Bernard D,Dingwall C,Kaufmann SH,Earnshaw WC||The Journal of biological chemistry (279:1030)||2004|
|Rat||Not Cited||Gap junction-microtubule associations in rat alveolar epithelial cells.||Guo Y,Martinez-Williams C,Rannels DE||American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology (285:L1213)||2003|
Changes in substance P and NK1 receptor immunohistochemistry following human spinal cord injury.
32-2500 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to study the immunohistochemical expression of substance P, NK1 and claudin-5 in traumatic spinal cord injury tissue.
|Leonard AV,Manavis J,Blumbergs PC,Vink R||Spinal cord (52:17)||2014|
Cingulin and paracingulin show similar dynamic behaviour, but are recruited independently to junctions.
32-2500 was used in immunocytochemistry to use fluorescently tagged cingulin and paracingulin to study the dynamics of their localization to the cytoskeleton and junctions.
|Paschoud S,Yu D,Pulimeno P,Jond L,Turner JR,Citi S||Molecular membrane biology (28:123)||2011|
||Gap junction-microtubule associations in rat alveolar epithelial cells.||Guo Y,Martinez-Williams C,Rannels DE||American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology (285:L1213)||2003|
|Human||Not Cited||Expression of cyclophilin B is associated with malignant progression and regulation of genes implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.||Fang F,Flegler AJ,Du P,Lin S,Clevenger CV||The American journal of pathology (174:297)||2009|
alpha-tubulin 4; alpha-tubulin isotype M-alpha-4; FLJ30169; H2 ALPHA; Testis specific alpha tubulin; TUBA1; Tubulin alpha; tubulin alpha-1 chain; tubulin alpha-4 chain; tubulin alpha-4A chain; tubulin H2-alpha; tubulin, alpha 1 (testis specific); tubulin, alpha 4; tubulin, alpha 4a
ALS22; H2-ALPHA; M[a]4; TUBA1; Tuba4; TUBA4A