Immunohistochemistry analysis of pan Arrestin showing staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus of paraffin-treated human cerebellum tissue (right) compared with a negative control in the absence of primary antibody (left). To expose target proteins, antigen retrieval was performed using 10mM sodium citrate (pH 6.0), microwaved for 8-15 min. Following antigen retrieval, tissues were blocked in 3% H2O2-methanol for 15 min at room temperature, washed with ddH2O and PBS, and then probed with a pan Arrestin polyclonal antibody (Product # PA1-730) diluted by 3% BSA-PBS at a dilution of 1:500 overnight at 4°C in a humidified chamber. Tissues were washed extensively in PBST and detection was performed using an HRP-conjugated secondary antibody followed by colorimetric detection using a DAB kit. Tissues were counterstained with hematoxylin and dehydrated with ethanol and xylene to prep for mounting.
|Tested species reactivity||Human, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Rat, Human, Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||Synthetic Peptide: C D(384) D I V F E D F A R L R L K(397)|
|Purification||Antigen affinity chromatography|
|Storage buffer||PBS with 1mg/ml BSA|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||1:100-1:1000|
|Immunoprecipitation (IP)||Assay dependent|
|Western Blot (WB)||3 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
PA1-730 detects recombinant rat and human beta-arrestin and beta-arrestin2. This antibody does not detect visual or cone arrestin.
PA1-730 has been successfully used in Western blot, Immunohistochemistry (paraffin) and immunoprecipitation procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects ~49 kDa and ~47 kDa proteins representing recombinant beta-arrestin and beta-arrestin2, respectively.
The PA1-730 immunizing peptide corresponds to amino acid residues 384-397 from human beta-arrestin2. This peptide (Cat. # PEP-156) is available for use in neutralization and control experiments.
Vision involves the conversion of light into electrochemical signals that are processed by the retina and subsequently sent to and interpreted by the brain. The process of converting light to an electrochemical signal begins when the membrane-bound protein, rhodopsin, absorbs light within the retina. In the active state, rhodopsin activates transducin, a GTP binding protein that promotes the hydrolysis of cGMP by phosphodiesterase (PDE). The decrease of intracellular cGMP concentrations causes the ion channels within the outer segment of the rod or cone to close, thus causing membrane hyperpolarization and, eventually, signal transmission. Rhodopsin and quote;s activity is believed to be shut off by its phosphorylation followed by binding of the soluble protein arrestin. Arrestins are cytosolic proteins that are involved in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) desensitization. Arrestin binding to activated GPCRs is phosphorylation dependent and, once bound, uncouple the GPCR from the associated heterotrimeric G proteins. There are currently 4 known mammalian isoforms, beta-arrestin1 (arrestin2), beta-arrestin2 (arrestin3), visual arrestin (arrestin1), and cone arrestin. The beta- isoforms are ubiquitously expressed and are known to interact with acetylcholine and adrenergic receptors. Visual and cone arrestins are found to interact directly with transducin.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Smoothened determines ß-arrestin-mediated removal of the G protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 from the primary cilium.
PA1-730 was used in immunocytochemistry to analyze beta-arrestin-mediated removal of the G protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 from the primary cilium determined by Smoothened
|Pal K,Hwang SH,Somatilaka B,Badgandi H,Jackson PK,DeFea K,Mukhopadhyay S||The Journal of cell biology (212:861)||2016|
Targeting of beta-arrestin2 to the centrosome and primary cilium: role in cell proliferation control.
PA1-730 was used in immunocytochemistry to investigate the role of beta-arrestin2 in cell proliferation control
|Molla-Herman A,Boularan C,Ghossoub R,Scott MG,Burtey A,Zarka M,Saunier S,Concordet JP,Marullo S,Benmerah A||PloS one (3:null)||2008|
Maternal low-protein diet programs cardiac beta-adrenergic response and signaling in 3-mo-old male offspring.
PA1-730 was used in western blot to investigate the hemodynamic response of the beta-adrenergic signaling pathway to isoproterenol
|Fernandez-Twinn DS,Ekizoglou S,Wayman A,Petry CJ,Ozanne SE||American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology (291:R429)||2006|
Role of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase site serine cluster in beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization, desensitization, and beta-arrestin translocation.
PA1-730 was used in western blot to investigate the role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase site serine cluster in beta2-adrenergic receptor.
|Vaughan DJ,Millman EE,Godines V,Friedman J,Tran TM,Dai W,Knoll BJ,Clark RB,Moore RH||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:7684)||2006|
D1 dopamine receptor mediates dopamine-induced cytotoxicity via the ERK signal cascade.
PA1-730 was used in immunoprecipitation to study the role of ERK in the dopamine-induced cytotoxicity .
|Chen J,Rusnak M,Luedtke RR,Sidhu A||The Journal of biological chemistry (279:39317)||2004|