Liver diseases of various etiologies can lead to liver cirrhosis and the need for a liver transplant but are often characterized by unspecific symptoms, such as jaundice, chronic fatigue, or abdominal pain.1,2 Although rare, autoimmune liver diseases represent a major cause of liver cirrhosis, and their differential diagnosis from non-autoimmune liver diseases (such as viral hepatitis) enables the clinician to make informed treatment decisions and to improve a patient’s quality of life.1-5
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) are the most clinically important autoimmune liver diseases.1,2 PBC is characterized by a chronic inflammation of the small bile ducts and impaired bile formation that can lead to liver cirrhosis and the need of a liver transplant.2,4 In case of AIH, an inflammation of the hepatocytes can lead to liver failure.1,6
Recommendations for the differential diagnosis of PBC and AIH include:
In case of anti-LKM-1 antibodies, the results of IFA and solid phase tests are considered interchangeable.1
In a scientific study, the EliA™ M2 test demonstrated a comparable sensitivity (100 percent) and a superior specificity (98 percent versus 77 percent) to IFA.8 The EliA M2 test enables you to detect AMA/anti-M2 antibodies with confidence, efficiently.
In a comparative study, the EliA™ LKM-1 test demonstrated a higher sensitivity than IFA (72.8 percent versus 69.1 percent), at the stratified specificity of 94.8 percent, to support the diagnosis of AIH (type 2).9 The EliA LKM-1 test helps clinicians make an accurate diagnosis in this difficult to diagnose disease that can lead to cirrhosis and whose onset usually occurs in childhood and young adulthood.10
EliA M2 and EliA LKM-1 tests benefit from the fully automated features on Phadia™ Laboratory Systems. Unlike IFA, laboratorians with standard training can run these tests as part of your Phadia Laboratory Systems workflow. EliA M2 and EliA LKM-1 tests can be performed from the same patient sample at the same time when there is a clinical suspicion of PBC and AIH. For rare tests such as these, the random-access functionality of the Phadia™ 250 instrument and the Phadia™ 2500 series and Phadia™ 5000 series can help streamline workflows, further minimizing the impact on laboratory practice.