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What can happen when good wine goes bad?

Without proper and accurate analysis in the winemaking process, you can easily lose valuable product to improper acidity, microbial instability, and spoilage. Scroll down to view details about winemaking process analysis or download the pdf version of the infographic ›

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 Pre-Fermentation

post fermentation

Adjust acidity and nutrients for the addition of tartaric acid, to maintain a low pH, and of diammonium phosphate as a nitrogen source for fermentation

What can happen without relevant analysis of pH, titratable acidity (TA), and ammonia nitrogen?

pH-icon TA-icon nitrogen-icon
pH affects SO2 antimicrobial action, growth of spoilage organisms, color and flavor. The lower the pH the lower the risk for microbial spoilage andsulfites prevent wine from spoiling.  TA affects taste of wine and can adjust pH levels . Nitrogen affects how much nutrient is required to prevent stuck fermentation

 Fermentation

pre-fermentation

During fermentation, yeast turns sugar into alcohol; contact time with skins, seeds, and stems influences tannins, flavors, and colors of wine

What can happen without relevant analysis of pH, titratable acidity (TA), and ammonia nitrogen?

pH-icon TA-icon SO2-icon
pH affects colors, SO2 additions, malolactic fermentation, and spoilage organisms Nitrogen nutrients affect fermentation SO2 levels can be adjusted to inhibit any native yeast fermentation that could be on the grapes before primary fermentation

 Post-Fermentation

Clarification


clarification



Filter systems are used to clarify wine and remove yeast after fermentation

What can happen without relevant analysis of turbidity?

clarify-icon Clarity is a feature of wine and microbial stability is important for long wine shelf-life.

Racking


racking


 

Wine is racked to aid in clarification of clean wine SO2 may be added in this step to suppress bacteria introduced in this process.

What can happen without relevant analysis of turbidity, clarity, sulfur dioxide, dissolved oxygen in tanks or barrels, titratable acidity, and pH?

O2-icon Excess air exposure will increase the O2 in a barrel which can destroy the flavor of wine through oxidation, causing off flavors before wine maturation.

Aging


aging

 


Wine is put in barrels or tanks to age.

What can happen without frequent analysis of pH, sulfur dioxide, dissolved oxygen in tanks or barrels, titratable acidity (TA)?

pH-icon SO2-icon O2-icon TA-icon
pH is adjusted for microbial stability, as it’s the molecular form of SO2 that will inhibit microbial stability. Some grapes typically have lower pH than others. SO2 affects microbiological growth and provides antioxidant protection. O2 exposure, in barrels and tanks, needs to be monitored to prevent oxidation. TA influences taste balance between sour or flat.

Bottling and further aging


bottling

 


Wine may be sterile filtered and is packaged in bottles.

What can happen without frequent analysis of pH, sulfur dioxide, dissolved oxygen in bottles, titratable acidity (TA), turbidity/clarity measurement?

level-icon O2-icon clarify-icon
pH, TA, and SO2 levels are important and should be periodically checked to ensure they are within specification. Measure DO in the tank during bottling to ensure that the head space gassing is adequate to not allow O2 pickup as the tank is emptied. Confirm by measuring DO in the wine right after it has been bottled. Turbidity is important for making sure filters do not clog and ensuring a clear wine without any haze.

Without proper and accurate analysis

pH-drop balance dissolved-oxygen-icon sulfur-dioxide-icon nitrogen-icon
potential growth of spoilage organisms; colors, SO2 additions taste and spoilage, malolactic fermentation, balance between sour and flat too much can lead to flavor degradation and wine spoilage affects microbiological growth and malolactic fermentation; helps prevent oxidation affects how much nutrient to prevent stuck fermentation

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