Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a naturally occurring cytokine that stimulates the production and antibacterial function of neutrophils and monocytes. The pleotropic cytokine is produced by activated monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, astrocytes, osteoblasts and bone marrow cells. G-CSF has been shown to have specific effects on the proliferation, differentiation and activation of hematopoietic cells. G-CSF is also expressed by various transformed cells such as carcinoma cells and myeloblastic leukaemia cells.The protein is encoded by two distinct DNA sequences, resulting in a full size, high activity and a shorter, low activity isoform of G-CSF. The protein is highly conserved among species. G-CSF has been shown to exert its biological functions through interaction with its receptor expressed on the surface of hematopoietic progenitors and neutrophilic granulocytes as well as certain carcinoma cell lines. Human G-CSF is a 18.8 kDa protein containing 175 amino acid residues. A soluble isoform of the G-CSF receptor has been described. Clinical use of G-CSF has been approved for several therapeutical applications, treatment of neonatal infections, therapy of acute myocardial infarction, granulocyte transfusion in patients with neutropenia, in severe infections and sepsis, therapy in chronic autoimmune neutropenia, treatment of acute myeloid leukemias, Sweet's syndrome and Aids. G-CSF has further been shown to be a marker protein for different carcinomas such as bladder cancer.
C17orf33; colony stimulating factor 3 (granulocyte); CSF3OS; filgrastim; G-CSF; GCSF; Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor; granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; lenograstim; MGC45931; Pluripoietin
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