STATs (signal transducers and activators of transcription) were originally discovered as two proteins (STAT1 and STAT2) which were involved in interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and IFN-gamma signal transduction. Since then, several additional STAT proteins have been identified (STAT3, 4, 5a, 5b, and 6). STATs undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in response to growth factor or cytokine signaling. This phosphorylation results in dimerization and translocation of STAT proteins to the nucleus. In some cases this process is mediated by JAK Kinases (Janus Kinases 1, 2, and 3). For maximum activation of these proteins, phosphorylation at specific tyrosine and serine residues may be required in STAT1 alpha, 3, 4, and 5. Specific functions of the various members of the STAT family are poorly understood. STAT3 has been shown to be activated by IFN-alpha but not IFN-beta. The transcription factors associated with STAT3 are c-Jun and cyclic AMP-responsive enhancer binding protein (CREB). Deletion of the STAT3 gene in knock-out mice was lethal at the early embryonic stage.
acute phase response factor; Acute-phase response factor; APRF; DNA-binding protein APRF; Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor); STAT3
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