MA3-019 detects protein disulphide-isomerase (PDI) from human, rat, porcine and mouse tissues as well as hamster cells.
MA3-019 has been successfully used in Western blot, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical, flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects a protein at 59 kDa representing PDI from rat liver extract or a slightly higher protein at 61 kDa representing PDI from human liver extract. Immunohistochemical staining of PDI in rat intestine with MA3-019 yields a pattern consistent with cytoplasmic staining. In immunoprecipitation procedures MA3-019 has been shown to inhibit the activity of PDI in vitro. MA3-019 has also been found to inhibit disulfide bond reduction of the HIV protein, gp120, at the cell surface of CHO cells and human lymphoid cells.
In immunohistochemistry procedures, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections are recommended.
The MA3-019 antigen is purified rat PDI.
The three dimensional structure of many extracellular proteins is stabilized by the formation of disulphide bonds. Studies suggest that a microsomal enzyme known as Protein Disulphide-Isomerase (PDI) is involved in disulphide-bond formation and isomerization, as well as the reduction of disulphide bonds in proteins. PDI, which catalyses disulphide interchange between thiols and protein dilsulphides, has also been referred to as thiol:protein-disulphide oxidoreductase and as glutathione:insulin transhydrogenase because of its role in reduction of disulphide bonds. The highly conserved sequence Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) is present at the carboxy-terminus of PDI and other soluble endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins including the 78 and 94 kDa glucose regulated proteins (GRP78 and GRP94 respectively). The presence of carboxy-terminal KDEL appears to be necessary for ER retention and appears to be sufficient to reduce the secretion of proteins from the ER. This retention is reported to be mediated by a KDEL receptor.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: Cellular thyroid hormone-binding protein; collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase beta; Endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 59; ER protein 59; glutathione-insulin transhydrogenase; p55; p58; PDI; procollagen-proline, 2-oxoglutarate 4-dioxygenase (proline 4-hydroxylase), beta polypeptide; Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit beta; prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide; protein disulfide isomerase; Protein disulfide isomerase (Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide); protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 1; protein disulfide isomerase-associated 1; protein disulfide isomerase/oxidoreductase; Protein disulfide-isomerase; Protein Disulphide-Isomerase; protocollagen hydroxylase; testicular secretory protein Li 32; thyroid hormone-binding protein p55
Gene Aliases: CLCRP1; DSI; ERBA2L; ERp59; GIT; I79_002399; P4HB; P4Hbeta; p58; PDI; PDIA1; PDIR; PHDB; PO4DB; PO4HB; PROHB; Thbp