What is ARXPS?

Analysis of a thin oxide film on a metal at near-normal and near-grazing collection angles could produce spectra with a larger relative intensity of the oxide peak at the near-grazing emission angle.

The information depth for XPS is a few nanometers, depending upon the kinetic energy of the electrons and the material being analyzed. Angle-resolved XPS (ARXPS), however, is a technique that varies the emission angle at which the electrons are collected, thereby enabling electron detection from different depths. ARXPS provides information about the thickness and composition of ultra-thin films. Such measurements are non-destructive, unlike sputter profiling.

Analysis of a thin oxide film on a metal at near-normal and near-grazing collection angles could produce spectra with a larger relative intensity of the oxide peak at the near-grazing emission angle.

There are three major reasons why ARXPS is useful:

  • It can be applied to films that are too thin to be analyzed by conventional depth profiling techniques.
  • It can be applied to films that are irretrievably damaged by sputtering (e.g., polymers).
  • It is non-destructive and can provide chemical state information, unlike methods based upon sputtering.

ARXPS measurements provide the following information:

  • Ordering of layers in an ultra-thin film.
  • Thickness of layers
  • Distribution of elements and chemical states within the film (depth profile reconstruction).

Data acquisition

ARXPS experiments are undertaken in a serial manner, by limiting the angular acceptance of the analyser and stepping through a range of angles in turn. This is usually undertaken by tilting the sample with respect to the analyser.

Angle-resolved XPS data is collected using a series of sample tilt angles.
Angle-resolved XPS data is collected using a series of sample tilt angles.

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Nexsa G2 XPS

  • Micro-focus X-ray sources
  • Unique multi-technique options
  • Dual-mode ion source for monoatomic & cluster ion depth profiling

K-Alpha XPS

  • High resolution XPS
  • Fast, efficient, automated workflow
  • Ion source for depth profiling

ESCALAB Xi+ XPS

  • High spectral resolution
  • Multi-technique surface analysis
  • Extensive sample preparation and expansion options
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