Thermo Fisher Scientific is one of the few primary manufacturers of nucleotides in the industry. Our nucleotides—including dNTPs, NTPs, and modified nucleotides—are synthesized from high-quality raw materials in state-of-the-art production facilities and available in a variety of formats, formulations, and volumes for convenience and flexibility. Review our offerings below for your applications like PCR, cDNA synthesis, oligo synthesis and labeling, in vitro transcription, and many more.

For molecular assay developers and life science researchers looking for reproducible and reliable performance of dNTPs and NTPs, learn more about ISO 13485 quality standards that help to ensure batch-to-batch consistency from research to commercialization and inquire how we can support custom formulations for your commercial needs.

Need custom or bulk formulations?

Benefits of dNTPs, NTPs, and modified nucleotides

  • High purity (>99%) according to HPLC (Figure 1)
  • Free from DNase, RNase, and inhibitors of qPCR, PCR, and RT
  • Stable for three years at –20°C
  • Available in custom formulations and for commercial supply

Choose from a range of dNTP and NTP formulations

For deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTPs), choose from our catalog of individual products (dATP, dCTP, dGTP, dTTP, and dUTP). dNTPs are available in solutions of each individual species or as a mix of all four species. Custom formulations are also available for specific requirements.

All ribonucleotide triphosphate (NTPs) formulations are designed for convenience and flexibility. Individual nucleotides (ATP, CTP, GTP, and UTP) are supplied in concentrations up to 200 mM in Tris or sodium salt. Custom formulations and nucleotide mixes are also available.

Specifications for dNTPs and NTPs

Table 1. Specification for dNTPs and NTPs

Presence of contaminating nucleotides, nucleosides and PCR inhibitors*None detectedNone detected
DNase, RNase, endo- and exodeoxyribonuclease**None detectedNone detected
Presence of human and E.coli DNA***NegativeNegative
  • 3 years at –20°C
  • >100 freeze-thaw cycles
  • 3 years at –20°C
  • >100 freeze-thaw cycles
  • qPCR, RT-qPCR
  • PCR, RT-PCR, cDNA synthesis
  • High-fidelity and long-range PCR
  • Isothermal amplification
  • DNA labeling
  • Cloning
  • Sanger sequencing and next-generation sequencing (NGS)
  • In vitro transcription
  • mRNA synthesis
  • siRNA synthesis
  • RNA amplification
  • Ligation
  • Phosphorylation
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* Measured by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography)
** Confirmed by incubation of labeled DNA or RNA target with NTPs or dNTPs
*** qPCR test for Alu repeats or 23S rRNA gene
† Stability studies assessed pH, HPLC profiles, and PCR performance.

Quality assurance for NTPs and dNTPs

Highly sensitive diagnostic assays and therapeutic regulatory standards require the highest nucleotide quality and batch-to-batch consistency. Our ISO 13485 and ISO 9001 certified dNTPs have a three year shelf life and are produced under stringent, multi-step QC and manufacturing standards, minimizing inconsistencies and errors in the final product. Manufactured with dedicated equipment in a zero-waste site, each production lot is assayed by the most stringent criteria regarding purity and functionality. For scalable, bulk, and flexible packaging, connect with our expert team for custom solutions.

Purity testing of nucleotide solutions

Purity testing assesses production lots for the desired species via HPLC (>99%) and monitors for the presence of nucleosidic byproducts, residual chemicals, or macromolecule contaminants that occur during production and purification processes. We use a variety of methods to assay for overall purity including HPLC, sensitive colorimetric assays, or performance in PCR (Table 5).

Table 5. Purity assessment of nucleotide solutions.

SpeciesDetection method
Nucleosidic contaminantHPLC
PyrophosphateMalachite green phosphate assay
Macromolecule contaminantsqPCR assay 

Triphosphate purity

We manufacture nucleotides with greater than 99% triphosphate purity as assessed by HPLC chromatography (Figure 1).

Graph showing the exceptional purity of NTPs

Figure 1. Exceptional purity of NTPs. HPLC analysis shows >99% triphosphate purity with negligible diphosphate and undetectable mono and tetraphosphate forms.

Nucleosidic contaminants

Trace amount of nucleosidic contaminants can significantly affect PCR performance. These include:

  • Mono- and diphosphate forms, which can decrease nucleotide incorporation
  • Di-deoxy base forms, which can terminate the amplification reaction
  • Modified nucleotides, which can decrease the sensitivity of an assay

Inorganic species

Residual chemicals used during nucleotide production or purification can interfere with PCR and are often termed “PCR inhibitors”. Pyrophosphate, a residual contaminant that can occur during production, can inhibit real-time PCR at concentrations of 0.1–0.3 mM, by interfering with fluorescence detection [1]. The presence of inorganic pyrophosphate is easily monitored using the Malachite Green Phosphate Assay which is a colorimetric method that detects formation of a complex between Malachite Green, molybdate, and free orthophosphate.

Macromolecule contaminants

The presence of macromolecules can cause false test results. These include:

  • DNase and RNase contaminants can affect cDNA synthesis resulting in false-negative results (Figure 2)
  • Nickase and protease activity can compromise the amplification template
  • Contaminating DNA from human and bacterial origins can cause false-positive results
Gel electrophoresis evaluation of ribonuclease-free Thermo Scientific dNTPs

Figure 2. Evaluation of ribonuclease-free Thermo Scientific dNTPs. Three dNTP formulations (all at 1 mM concentration) were incubated with 1 μg of RNA transcript (1 kb and 0.2 kb) for 4 hours at 37°C in 20 μL volume. The dNTP preparations are determined to be RNase free if there is no visible trace of RNA transcript degradation. M: Thermo Scientific RiboRuler Low Range RNA Ladder, ready-to-use. K1: Control RNA transcript, 1 kb long. K2: Control RNA transcript, 0.2 kb long. A:With dNTP mix, 2 mM each. B:With dNTP mix, 10 mM each. C:With dNTP set.

Functional testing for nucleotide quality control

To complement analytical tests for quality control, each lot of Thermo Scientific nucleotides is also analyzed using a variety of functional tests including RT-qPCR and in vitro transcription.


Samples of each lot are tested by RT-qPCR (Figure 3). The assay is performed with low template concentration, which allows detection of even minute variations in dNTP performance.

Amplification plot showing the high quality of dNTPs

Figure 3. High quality of dNTPs helps ensure consistent Ct values in qPCR, especially with low template concentrations. dNTPs were tested for detection of the GAPDH gene in two-step RT-qPCR using different amounts of RNA transcript (107 to 103 copies) in reverse transcription reactions followed by amplification with hot-start Taq DNA polymerase.


Samples of each lot are tested by in vitro transcription (Figure 4).

Agarose gel showing NTP performance in high-yield in vitro transcription

Figure 4. NTP performance in high-yield in vitro transcription. RNA transcripts were generated using Thermo Scientific NTPs and NTPs from two other vendors in high-yield in vitro transcription reactions containing 1 μg of DNA template. M:Thermo Scientific RiboRuler High Range RNA Ladder, ready-to-use. 1, 4, 7: 0.5 kb RNA transcripts. 2, 5, 8: 1 kb RNA transcripts. 3, 6, 9: 6 kb RNA transcripts.

Nucleotide ordering information

Do you need Invitrogen dNTPs or NTPs for an existing protocol? Please see our Invitrogen Nucleotides Collection to find the products you need.

Thermo Scientific dNTPs

Custom service and flexible packaging
  • Format—any concentration, formulation, and volume; custom mixes and blends
  • Scale—microliters to liters, milligrams to kilograms
  • Packaging—labeling, finishing, and choice of vials and bottles

Connect with our expert team and build custom solutions for your commercial needs

Need higher grade nucleotides?
We also offer TheraPure NTPs and modified nucleotides for nucleic acid therapeutics development. These high-quality nucleotides are produced with strictly controlled manufacturing processes and well-defined impurity profiles.

Contact us to learn more at


  • Contact us
    Email or call our technical application scientists for additional questions about dNTPs, NTPs, and modified nucleotides.
  • OEM and custom solutions
    Contact us for tailor-made performance tested products with strict quality standard to meet your molecular assay requirements.
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