Bismuth • Other Metal
Primary XPS region: Bi4f
Overlapping regions: Si2s loss features
Binding energies of common chemical states:
|Chemical state||Binding energy Bi4f7/2|
|Bi metal||157 eV|
- Bi4f region has well-separated spin-orbit components (Δ=5.3eV).
- Peaks in the Bi4f region have an asymmetric peak shape for bismuth metal.
- Bismuth compounds, such as its oxide, have symmetric Bi4f peaks.
Date of discovery: unknown
Name origin: German wissmuth
Obtained from: bismuthine
Melting point: 271.3 K
Boiling point: 1560 K
Molar volume: 21.31 × 10-6 m3/mol
Shell structure: 2,8,18,32,18,5
Electron configuration: [Xe]4f145d106s26p3
Oxidation state: 3,5
Crystal structure: Rhombohedral
This brittle, pinkish metal gets its name from the German word wissmuth, meaning white mass. In early times, bismuth was often confused with tin or lead due to its resemblance to those elements. When bismuth is combusted with oxygen, it burns blue and its oxide forms yellow fumes. Bismuth is used in cosmetics. It is found in pharmaceuticals and is used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Strong permanent magnets are produced using one of its alloys, and bismuth has been used as a dense material in fishing sinkers and as a replacement for lead in shot and bullets.
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