Browse adaptive immunity pathways

Adaptive immunity is one of two ways by which vertebrates clear pathogens from the body. The adapative immune system provides long-term protection against specific pathogens. A variety of cell signaling pathways are involved in this area of biology, including the AKT signaling pathway, the Fas signaling pathway, and the RANK pathway.

AKT Signaling Pathway

AKT is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of apoptosis.

Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHCs

Antigen processing and presentation are the processes that result in association of proteins with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules for recognition by a T-cell.

B-Cell Development Pathway

In immune responses, APRIL acts as a co-stimulator for B-cell and T-cell proliferation and supports class switch.

B-Cell Receptor Complex

The B-cell receptor (BCR) complex usually consists of an antigen-binding subunit that is composed of two Ig heavy chains, two Ig light chains, and a signaling subunit.

CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage

Each mature T-cell generally retains expression of the co-receptor molecule (CD4 or CD8) that has a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding property that matches that of its T-cell receptor (TCR).

CTLA4 Signaling Pathway

The co-stimulatory CTLA4 pathway attenuates or down-regulates T-cell activation. CTLA4 is designed to remove body cells displaying a foreign epitope.

ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T-Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

MAPK Family Pathway

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) belong to a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans.

PI3K Signaling in B Lymphocytes

The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate numerous biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration, and metabolism.

TGF-Beta Pathway

Members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair of most tissues.

THC Differentiation Pathway

T-helper cells of type 1 (TH1) and type 2 (TH2) are derived from T-helper cells and provide help to cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems.

TNF Superfamily Pathway

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily consists of 19 members that signal through 29 receptors that are members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily.

Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of tumors.