Browse cytokine, chemokine, growth factor pathways

Cytokines, chemokines (a type of cytokine), and growth factors are proteins that act as immune signaling molecules. They are many roles for cytokines in balancing the adaptive and innate immune responses as well as regulating certain cell populations. A number of pathways belong to this area of biology, including the IL-22 and the TWEAK pathways.


Cytokine Network

Cytokines have been classified on the basis of their biological responses into pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, depending on their effects on immunocytes.

IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T-Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts

RANKL induces the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells and stimulates the resorption function and survival of mature osteoclasts.

TGF-Beta Pathway

Members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair of most tissues.

TNF Signaling Pathway

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine with effects on lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function.

TNF Superfamily Pathway

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily consists of 19 members that signal through 29 receptors that are members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily.

VEGF Family of Ligands and Receptor Interactions

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly-conserved genetic pathway that has evolved from simple to complex systems.