Cytokines, chemokines (a type of cytokine), and growth factors are proteins that act as immune signaling molecules. They are many roles for cytokines in balancing the adaptive and innate immune responses as well as regulating certain cell populations. A number of pathways belong to this area of biology, including the IL-22 and the TWEAK pathways.
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a large subclass of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily.
Cytokines have been classified on the basis of their biological responses into pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, depending on their effects on immunocytes.
One of the most well characterized modulators of angiogenesis is the heparin-binding fibroblast growth factor (FGF).
IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects the immune system and many physiological events in various organs.
IL-10 is a pleiotropic cytokine with important immunoregulatory functions and whose activities influence many immune cell types.
IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines and exerts multiple effects on the immune system.
Interferons are pleiotropic cytokines best known for their ability to induce cellular resistance to viral infection.
RANKL and its receptor RANK are key regulators of bone remodeling, and are essential for the development and activation of osteoclasts.
RANKL induces the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells and stimulates the resorption function and survival of mature osteoclasts.
Members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair of most tissues.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine with effects on lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function.
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily consists of 19 members that signal through 29 receptors that are members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily.
TWEAK is a cell surface-associated protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and has multiple biological activities.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly-conserved genetic pathway that has evolved from simple to complex systems.