Apoptosis is the tightly regulated process of controlled cell death in multicellular organisms. While it is an advantageous and often beneficial process, it can become unregulated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumorigenesis. Several important pathways fall under apoptosis, including the AKT signaling and the p53-mediated apoptosis pathways.
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AKT is a serine/threonine kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of apoptosis.
Certain cells have unique sensors, termed death receptors (DRs), which detect the presence of extracellular death signals and rapidly ignite the cell's intrinsic apoptosis machinery.
FAS (also called APO1 or CD95) is a death domain–containing member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily.
Granzyme A (GzmA) activates a caspase-independent cell death pathway with morphological features of apoptosis.
Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to programmed cell death.
The cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), also known as killer T-cells, are produced during cell-mediated immunity designed to remove body cells displaying a foreign epitope.
Tumor protein p53 is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes involved in apoptosis, growth arrest, or senescence in response to genotoxic or cellular stress.
Members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair of most tissues.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine with effects on lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function.
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily consists of 19 members that signal through 29 receptors that are members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily.
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