Holmium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Ho4d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A

 

Experimental information

N/A

 

Interpretation of XPS spectra

N/A

 

About this element
Element Crystal hex

Symbol: Ho
Date of discovery: 1878
Name origin: Latin holmia
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: J.L. Soret
Obtained from: gadolinite

Melting point: 1470 K
Boiling Ppoint: 2720 K
Density[kg/m3]: 8.795
Molar volume: 18.74 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 67
Neutrons: 98
Shell structure: 2,8,18,29,8,2
Electron configuration: [Xe]4f116s2
Oxidation state: 3
Crystal structure: hexagonal

Holmium is stable in dry air at room temperature, but is rapidly oxidized in moist air or when heated. Holmium has the highest magnetic strength of any naturally-occurring element and possesses other unusual magnetic properties. The element has been used to create the strongest artificially-generated magnetic fields and is also used in nuclear control rods. Solid state holmium lasers are found in a variety of medical and dental settings. One such application is used to break up kidney stones while being minimally-invasive.

 

element_holmium

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