Neodymium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Nd3d, Nd4d
Overlapping regions: O KLL
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical stateBinding energy Nd3d5/2
Nd aluminium phosphate~980 eV

 

Experimental information
  • Collect both Nd3d and Nd4d regions to aid with data interpretation.

 

Interpretation of XPS spectra
  • There is a very strong overlap of Nd3d with O KLL peaks.
    • Use Nd4d instead (120eV), but this can also overlap with Al2s.

 

General comments
  • Common oxidation state: Nd(III).
  • Magnetic in metallic state.

 

About this element
Element Crystal hex

Symbol: Nd
Date of discovery: 1885
Name origin: Greek neos and didymos
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: C.F. Aver von Welsbach
Obtained from: monazite and bastnasite

Melting point: 1297 K
Boiling point: 3373 K
Density[kg/m3]: 6800
Molar volume: 20.59 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 60
Neutrons: 84
Shell structure: 2,8,18,22,8,2
Electron configuration: [Xe]4f46s2
Oxidation state: 3
Crystal structure: hexagonal

Neodymium is a rare, reactive, earth metal with a bright, silvery, metallic luster that quickly tarnishes in air. It was discovered in 1885 by Austrian chemist Baron Carl Auer von Welbach, who separated the metal from didymium with repeated fractionations. While the free element is in misch metal, long known and used as a pyrophoric alloy for light flints, the element was not isolated in its pure form until 1925. Neodymium is used to create strong permanent magnets used in loudspeakers and computer data storage devices. It is also used to color glass used in lasers and incandescent light bulbs.

 

element_neodymium

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