Investigating impact on cancer progression
The discovery and development of effective cancer immunotherapy requires a better understanding of the tumor and its surrounding environment. Different stages of cancer progression depend on the tumor, the organ in which it resides, and the immune response. The innate and adaptive immune response and the associated cellular molecular factors influence tumorigenesis and the biochemical makeup of the tumor microenvironment. Profiling genotypic to phenotypic markers is useful for predicting drug response or elucidating the mechanisms of resistance to therapy. To help researchers investigate the relationship between the cellular and extra-cellular features of a tumor and the immune response Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a broad portfolio of solutions.
Characterizing cytokine profiles within the tumor microenvironment
Cytokines are low–molecular weight proteins that mediate communication between cells in the tumor microenvironment. Immune cells (e.g., macrophages and lymphocytes) and stromal cells (e.g., fibroblasts and endothelial cells) release cytokines to affect cell differentiation, growth, survival, migration, and immune cell activation. Cytokines may have a wide impact on cancer cells ranging from being anti-tumorigenic to influencing various stages of tumorigenesis. Early responses of inflammation as well as later changes such as cellular transformation and malignancy are a result of balancing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, cytokine receptor expression patterns, and the cellular make-up of the tumor microenvironment. Table 1 below highlights key features of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors commonly associated with propagation of tumor-associated inflammation.
Table 1. Selected proteins associated with leukocytes of the tumor microenvironment.
|ProQuantum Kit Cat. No.||Functions linking inflammation to cancer|
|TAM||TGF-β1||MA1-116||BMS249-4||Promotes tumor growth in later stages of carcinogenesis by creating an immunotolerant environment|
|MDSC, TAM||IL-6||700480||KAC1261||A35573||Promotes tumor growth|
|MDSC, TAM||IL-8||710256||KAC1301||A35575||Enhances proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis|
|MDSC, TAM, Tregs||IL-10||710170||KAC1321||Anti-inflammatory; downregulates expression of Th1 cytokines and costimulatory molecules on macrophages|
|Th17 cells||IL-17||MA1069||EHIL17B||Associated with angiogenesis and poor prognosis|
|Th17 cells||IL-21||710141||BMS2043||Associated with tumor development|
|Th17 cells||IL-22||701031||BMS2047||Promotes differentiation of Th17 cells|
|Macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, T cells, NK cells||TNF-α||710288||KHC3011||A35601||Induces DNA damage and inhibit DNA repair; promotes tumor growth; induces angiogenic factors|
|Macrophages, T cells, mast cells, NK cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts||GM-CSF||701136||KHC2011||A428915||Stimulates development of granulocytes, macrophages, early megakaryocytes and eosinophil progenitor cells|
|Endothelial cells, fibroblasts||M-CSF||PA1-20182||EHCSF1||Controls production, differentiation, and function|
|We offer additional immuno-oncology–related antibodies, ELISA kits, and ProQuantum kits.|
Abbreviations: GM-CSF - Granuloctye-macrophage colony-stimulating factor); IL - Interleukin, M-CSF - Macrophage colony-stimulating factor; MDSC - Myeloid-derived suppressor cells; TAM - Tumor associated macrophages; TGF - Transforming growth factor.
Molecular profiling of co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory transcripts in tumors
In addition to co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory checkpoint molecules and cytokine and chemokines that can identify cell-type specific markers, RNA analysis can help to understand their related upstream transcriptional processes and pathways. The ability to perform high-content gene expression profiling allows for the simultaneous analysis of multiple pathways in addition to monitoring immune activation. The QuantiGene Plex assay enables direct quantification of mRNA and lncRNA targets directly from any sample including fresh, frozen or FFPE tissue and whole blood.
QuantiGene Plex T cell Activation and Inflammation Monitoring Panel
Below is a customizable QuantiGene panel for 80 human (assay ID: M19082703) or mouse (assay ID: M19082702) targets, that can be analyzed on a Luminex instrument (this panel is based on the work published by Holmgaard et al.). Fill out a quote request form to assemble the QuantiGene Plex T cell Activation and Inflammation Monitoring Panel, and we will contact you shortly. Or email your request to our probe design team at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Additional resources for tumor microenvironment-related topics
- BioProbes Journal article: Cells and soluble mediators of the tumor microenvironment. Antibody-based tools for identifying cell types and proteins of interest
- BioProbes Journal review article: Tracking intratumoral NK cell function by flow cytometry
- Related application area: Study the tumor microenvironment with flow cytometry
Protein and cell analysis products for immuno-oncology research
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.