BPAE cells stained with red-orange cytoplasm, green mitochondria, and blue nuclei

Overview of cell viability assays

Cell viability refers to the number of live, healthy cells in a sample (1). Cell viability assays are used to measure the physical and physiological health of cells in response to extracellular stimuli, chemical agents, or therapeutic treatments (1,2,3), or when determining optimal growth conditions in cell culture.

Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a vast array of assays for detecting cell viability, as shown in the selection table below. Most assays can be used across multiple detection platforms including fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and microplate readers. Each assay contains a specially designed reagent that determines viability based on cellular membrane integrity (membrane integrity dyes) or a cellular function such as enzymatic activity (enzyme activity substrates) or metabolic activity (metabolic activity reagents). Each viability reagent provides a single-parameter readout on whether cells are living or dead. Multi-parameter assays are also available (cell viability kits) and provide the ability to detect multiple measures of cell health. These viability kits allow for simultaneous detection of live, dead, and damaged/dying cells. Cell viability kits provide more context of cellular changes than a single-parameter readout.

Selection guide of cell viability assays

Nucleic acid binding dyes are cell-impermeant, nucleic acid-binding stains that are only able to enter cells with a compromised plasma membrane. Dimly fluorescent in aqueous medium, they highly fluoresce when bound to double-stranded DNA or RNA. Learn more about these nucleic acid binding membrane integrity dyes.

 Platform*Standard filter setLaser (nm)Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
Propidium iodide (PI)FC, FMRFP488/532/561535/617P1304MP
TO-PRO-3 IodideFC, FMCy5633642/661T3605
7-AADFC, FMTexas Red561546/647A1310
SYTOX Blue Nucleic Acid Stain FC, FMBFP405444/480S11348
SYTOX Green Nucleic Acid StainFC, FMGFP488483/503S7020
SYTOX Orange Nucleic Acid StainFC, FMRFP561547/570S11368
SYTOX Deep Red Nucleic Acid StainFC, FM, MCy5633660/682S11381
SYTOX Blue Dead Cell StainFC, FM-405444/480S34857
SYTOX Green Dead Cell StainFC, FM-488504/523S34860
SYTOX Orange Dead Cell StainFC, FM-561547/570S34861
SYTOX AADvanced Dead Cell Stain KitFC-561546/647S10349
SYTOX Red Dead Cell StainFC, FM-633640/658S34859
SYTOX Dead Cell Stain sampler packFC, FM-488, 532, 561, 633multipleS34862
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Amine-reactive viability dyes are cell-impermeant and react with cellular amine proteins. Dimly fluorescent when bound to extracellular amine proteins on live cells, there is a significant increase in fluorescence when these dyes enter dead cells and bind to intracellular amine proteins. Since this binding is covalent, these samples can be fixed and permeabilized without losing their viability staining pattern. Learn more about these fixable viability dyes.

 Platform*Standard filter setLaser (nm)Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
Image-iT DEAD Green Viability StainFC, FMGFP488488/515I10291
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Blue StainFC-UV350/450L34961
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Violet StainFC-405416/451L34963
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Lime StainFC-405405/506L34989
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Aqua StainFC-405367/526L34965
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Yellow StainFC-405400/575L34967
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Green StainFC-488495/520L34969
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Olive StainFC-488479/557L34977
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Orange StainFC-561578/602L34983
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Red StainFC-488, 561595/615L34971
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Far Red StainFC-633650/665L34973
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Scarlet StainFC-633702/723L34986
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Near-IR (775) StainFC-633750/775L34975
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Near-IR (780) StainFC-633633/785L34992
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Near IR (876) StainFC-808840/876L34980
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Enzyme activity viability substrates are nonfluorescent reagents that react with cellular enzymes in live cells (CellTrace Calcein AM dyes) or react with cellular enzymes released from damaged cells (CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assays) and use a fluorescent or colorimetric detection method. Learn more about these enzyme activity substrates.

NamePlatform*Detection methodAbsorbance (nm)Fluorescence Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
CellTrace Calcein Blue, AMFC, FMFluorescence-323/439C34853
CellTrace Calcein Violet, AMFC, FMFluorescence-400/452C34858
CellTrace Calcein Green, AMFC, FMFluorescence-495/515C34852
CellTrace Calcein Red-Orange, AMFC, FMFluorescence-577/590C34851
Calcein, AMFMFluorescence-494/517C3100MP
CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay - FluorescenceMFluorescence-560/590C20302
CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (G6PD Release Assay)MColorimetric, fluorescence563560/590V23111
CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity AssayMColorimetric490-C20300
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Metabolic activity viability assays are live-cell, membrane permeant reagents that detect the cellular reducing environment (alamarBlue, PrestoBlue) or the cellular redox potential (CyQUANT MTT or CyQUANT XTT) and use a fluorescent or colorimetric detection method. Learn more about these metabolic activity reagents.

NamePlatform*Detection methodAbsorbance (nm)Fluorescent Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
alarmarBlue Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590DAL1025
alamarBlue HS Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590A50100
PrestoBlue Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590A13261
PrestoBlue HS Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590P50200
Vybrant Cell Metabolic Assay Kit, with C12-resazurinFC, MFluorescence563563/587V23110
CyQUANT MTT Cell Viability AssayMColorimetric570-V13154
CyQUANT XTT Cell Viability AssayMColorimetric450-X12223
*FC = flow cytometry; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Ready-to-use viability dyes allow for easy and quick cell staining with no calculations, no dilutions, and no pipetting. Learn more about these ready-to-use viability dyes.

NamePlatform*Standard filter setLaser (nm)Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
NucGreen Dead 488 ReadyProbes ReagentFC, FMGFP488504/523R37109
NucRed Dead 647 ReadyProbes ReagentFC, FMCy5633642/661R37113
Propidium Iodide ReadyProbesFC, FMRFP488/532/561535/617R37108
NucRed Live 647 ReadyProbesFC, FMCy5633638/686R37106
NucBlue Live ReadyProbes (Hoeschst 33342)FC, FMDAPIUV360/460R37605
SYTOX Green ReadyFlowFC-488504/523R37168
Propidium Iodide ReadyFlowFC-488/532/561535/617R37169
TO-PRO-3 ReadyFlowFC-633642/661R37170
SYTOX AADvanced ReadyFlowFC-488/532/561546/647R37173
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Cell viability kits allow for the multi-parameter detection of cell viability. Learn more about these cell viability kits.

NamePlatform*Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
ReadyProbes Cell Viability Imaging Kit (Blue/Green)FC, FM, M360/460
504/523
R37609
ReadyProbes Cell Viability Imaging Kit (Blue/Red)FC, FM, M360/460
535/617
R37610
Single-Channel Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V Alexa Fluor 488 and SYTOX Green FC499/521
503/524
V13240
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V Alexa Fluor 488 & Propidium Iodide (PI)FC, FM499/521
535/617
V13241
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V FITC and PIFC494/518
535/617
V13242
Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit #4, YO-PRO-1/ Propidium IodideFC491/509
535/617
V13243
Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit #5, Hoechst 33342/ Propidium IodideFC350/461
535/617
V13244
Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit #6, Biotin-X Annexin V/ Alexa Fluor 350 Streptavidin/ Propidium IodideFC346/442
535/617
V23200
Chromatin Condensation & Membrane Permeability Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Hoechst 33342, YO-PRO-1, and PIFC350/461
491/509
535/617
V23201
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V PE and SYTOX GreenFC, FM503/524
488/575
V35112
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V APC and SYTOX GreenFC, FM503/524
650/660
V35113
Metabolic Activity Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with C12 Resazurin, Annexin V APC, and SYTOX GreenFC, FM503/524
571/585
650/660
V35114
Membrane Permeability Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with PO-PRO-1 and 7-AADFC, FM434/456
546/647
V35123
Vybrant DyeCycle Violet/ STYOX AADvanced Apoptosis KitFC369/437
546/647
A35135
Pacific Blue Annexin V/ SYTOX AADvanced Apoptosis KitFC415/455
546/647
A35136
Violet Ratiometric Membrane Asymmetry Probe/ Dead Cell Apoptosis KitFC405/530
546/647
A35137
eBioscience Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit PEFC, FM565/578
546/647
88-8102-72
HCS Mitochondrial Health KitFM, M350/461
488/515
550/580
H10295
LIVE/DEAD cell viability kits
LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity KitFC, FM, M494/517
528/617
L3224
LIVE/DEAD Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity KitFC, FM, M484/501
536/617
L7010
LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit FC, FM485/517
586/617
L7011
LIVE/DEAD Reduced Biohazard Cell Viability Kit #1FC, FM, M488/505
535/624
L7013
LIVE/DEAD Cell Viability Assay Kit, C12 Resazurin/SYTOX GreenFC, FM, M504/523
563/587
L34951
The LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (Green/Deep Red)FM, M494/517
660/682
L32250
LIVE/DEAD Violet Viability/Vitality KitFC367/528
400/452
L34958
LIVE/DEAD Cell Imaging KitFM488/515
570/602
R37601
HCS LIVE/DEAD Green KitFM, M350/461
488/515
638/686
H10290
LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability kits
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L7007
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L7012
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L13152
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability and Counting KitFC485/498
535/617
L34856
FilmTracer LIVE/DEAD Biofilm Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L10316
LIVE/DEAD fungi and yeast viability kits
LIVE/DEAD Yeast Viability KitFM, M488/530
488/560-610
365/440
L7009
LIVE/DEAD FungaLight Yeast Viability KitFC485/498
535/617
L34952
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Nucleic acid binding dyes are cell-impermeant, nucleic acid-binding stains that are only able to enter cells with a compromised plasma membrane. Dimly fluorescent in aqueous medium, they highly fluoresce when bound to double-stranded DNA or RNA. Learn more about these nucleic acid binding membrane integrity dyes.

 Platform*Standard filter setLaser (nm)Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
Propidium iodide (PI)FC, FMRFP488/532/561535/617P1304MP
TO-PRO-3 IodideFC, FMCy5633642/661T3605
7-AADFC, FMTexas Red561546/647A1310
SYTOX Blue Nucleic Acid Stain FC, FMBFP405444/480S11348
SYTOX Green Nucleic Acid StainFC, FMGFP488483/503S7020
SYTOX Orange Nucleic Acid StainFC, FMRFP561547/570S11368
SYTOX Deep Red Nucleic Acid StainFC, FM, MCy5633660/682S11381
SYTOX Blue Dead Cell StainFC, FM-405444/480S34857
SYTOX Green Dead Cell StainFC, FM-488504/523S34860
SYTOX Orange Dead Cell StainFC, FM-561547/570S34861
SYTOX AADvanced Dead Cell Stain KitFC-561546/647S10349
SYTOX Red Dead Cell StainFC, FM-633640/658S34859
SYTOX Dead Cell Stain sampler packFC, FM-488, 532, 561, 633multipleS34862
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Amine-reactive viability dyes are cell-impermeant and react with cellular amine proteins. Dimly fluorescent when bound to extracellular amine proteins on live cells, there is a significant increase in fluorescence when these dyes enter dead cells and bind to intracellular amine proteins. Since this binding is covalent, these samples can be fixed and permeabilized without losing their viability staining pattern. Learn more about these fixable viability dyes.

 Platform*Standard filter setLaser (nm)Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
Image-iT DEAD Green Viability StainFC, FMGFP488488/515I10291
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Blue StainFC-UV350/450L34961
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Violet StainFC-405416/451L34963
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Lime StainFC-405405/506L34989
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Aqua StainFC-405367/526L34965
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Yellow StainFC-405400/575L34967
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Green StainFC-488495/520L34969
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Olive StainFC-488479/557L34977
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Orange StainFC-561578/602L34983
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Red StainFC-488, 561595/615L34971
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Far Red StainFC-633650/665L34973
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Scarlet StainFC-633702/723L34986
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Near-IR (775) StainFC-633750/775L34975
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Near-IR (780) StainFC-633633/785L34992
LIVE/DEAD Fixable Near IR (876) StainFC-808840/876L34980
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Enzyme activity viability substrates are nonfluorescent reagents that react with cellular enzymes in live cells (CellTrace Calcein AM dyes) or react with cellular enzymes released from damaged cells (CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assays) and use a fluorescent or colorimetric detection method. Learn more about these enzyme activity substrates.

NamePlatform*Detection methodAbsorbance (nm)Fluorescence Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
CellTrace Calcein Blue, AMFC, FMFluorescence-323/439C34853
CellTrace Calcein Violet, AMFC, FMFluorescence-400/452C34858
CellTrace Calcein Green, AMFC, FMFluorescence-495/515C34852
CellTrace Calcein Red-Orange, AMFC, FMFluorescence-577/590C34851
Calcein, AMFMFluorescence-494/517C3100MP
CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay - FluorescenceMFluorescence-560/590C20302
CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (G6PD Release Assay)MColorimetric, fluorescence563560/590V23111
CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity AssayMColorimetric490-C20300
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Metabolic activity viability assays are live-cell, membrane permeant reagents that detect the cellular reducing environment (alamarBlue, PrestoBlue) or the cellular redox potential (CyQUANT MTT or CyQUANT XTT) and use a fluorescent or colorimetric detection method. Learn more about these metabolic activity reagents.

NamePlatform*Detection methodAbsorbance (nm)Fluorescent Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
alarmarBlue Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590DAL1025
alamarBlue HS Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590A50100
PrestoBlue Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590A13261
PrestoBlue HS Cell Viability ReagentMFluorescence570560/590P50200
Vybrant Cell Metabolic Assay Kit, with C12-resazurinFC, MFluorescence563563/587V23110
CyQUANT MTT Cell Viability AssayMColorimetric570-V13154
CyQUANT XTT Cell Viability AssayMColorimetric450-X12223
*FC = flow cytometry; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Ready-to-use viability dyes allow for easy and quick cell staining with no calculations, no dilutions, and no pipetting. Learn more about these ready-to-use viability dyes.

NamePlatform*Standard filter setLaser (nm)Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
NucGreen Dead 488 ReadyProbes ReagentFC, FMGFP488504/523R37109
NucRed Dead 647 ReadyProbes ReagentFC, FMCy5633642/661R37113
Propidium Iodide ReadyProbesFC, FMRFP488/532/561535/617R37108
NucRed Live 647 ReadyProbesFC, FMCy5633638/686R37106
NucBlue Live ReadyProbes (Hoeschst 33342)FC, FMDAPIUV360/460R37605
SYTOX Green ReadyFlowFC-488504/523R37168
Propidium Iodide ReadyFlowFC-488/532/561535/617R37169
TO-PRO-3 ReadyFlowFC-633642/661R37170
SYTOX AADvanced ReadyFlowFC-488/532/561546/647R37173
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Cell viability kits allow for the multi-parameter detection of cell viability. Learn more about these cell viability kits.

NamePlatform*Ex/Em** (nm)Cat. No.
ReadyProbes Cell Viability Imaging Kit (Blue/Green)FC, FM, M360/460
504/523
R37609
ReadyProbes Cell Viability Imaging Kit (Blue/Red)FC, FM, M360/460
535/617
R37610
Single-Channel Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V Alexa Fluor 488 and SYTOX Green FC499/521
503/524
V13240
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V Alexa Fluor 488 & Propidium Iodide (PI)FC, FM499/521
535/617
V13241
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V FITC and PIFC494/518
535/617
V13242
Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit #4, YO-PRO-1/ Propidium IodideFC491/509
535/617
V13243
Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit #5, Hoechst 33342/ Propidium IodideFC350/461
535/617
V13244
Vybrant Apoptosis Assay Kit #6, Biotin-X Annexin V/ Alexa Fluor 350 Streptavidin/ Propidium IodideFC346/442
535/617
V23200
Chromatin Condensation & Membrane Permeability Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Hoechst 33342, YO-PRO-1, and PIFC350/461
491/509
535/617
V23201
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V PE and SYTOX GreenFC, FM503/524
488/575
V35112
Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with Annexin V APC and SYTOX GreenFC, FM503/524
650/660
V35113
Metabolic Activity Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with C12 Resazurin, Annexin V APC, and SYTOX GreenFC, FM503/524
571/585
650/660
V35114
Membrane Permeability Dead Cell Apoptosis Kit with PO-PRO-1 and 7-AADFC, FM434/456
546/647
V35123
Vybrant DyeCycle Violet/ STYOX AADvanced Apoptosis KitFC369/437
546/647
A35135
Pacific Blue Annexin V/ SYTOX AADvanced Apoptosis KitFC415/455
546/647
A35136
Violet Ratiometric Membrane Asymmetry Probe/ Dead Cell Apoptosis KitFC405/530
546/647
A35137
eBioscience Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit PEFC, FM565/578
546/647
88-8102-72
HCS Mitochondrial Health KitFM, M350/461
488/515
550/580
H10295
LIVE/DEAD cell viability kits
LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity KitFC, FM, M494/517
528/617
L3224
LIVE/DEAD Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity KitFC, FM, M484/501
536/617
L7010
LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit FC, FM485/517
586/617
L7011
LIVE/DEAD Reduced Biohazard Cell Viability Kit #1FC, FM, M488/505
535/624
L7013
LIVE/DEAD Cell Viability Assay Kit, C12 Resazurin/SYTOX GreenFC, FM, M504/523
563/587
L34951
The LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (Green/Deep Red)FM, M494/517
660/682
L32250
LIVE/DEAD Violet Viability/Vitality KitFC367/528
400/452
L34958
LIVE/DEAD Cell Imaging KitFM488/515
570/602
R37601
HCS LIVE/DEAD Green KitFM, M350/461
488/515
638/686
H10290
LIVE/DEAD bacterial viability kits
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L7007
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L7012
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L13152
LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability and Counting KitFC485/498
535/617
L34856
FilmTracer LIVE/DEAD Biofilm Viability KitFC, FM, M480/500
490/635
L10316
LIVE/DEAD fungi and yeast viability kits
LIVE/DEAD Yeast Viability KitFM, M488/530
488/560-610
365/440
L7009
LIVE/DEAD FungaLight Yeast Viability KitFC485/498
535/617
L34952
*FC = flow cytometry; FM = fluorescence microscopy; M = microplate assay
**Ex=excitation; Em=emission

Membrane integrity viability dyes (nucleic acid binding)

Membrane integrity is a commonly measured parameter in cell viability assays. Membrane integrity dyes are cell-impermeant and only able to enter cells with a compromised plasma membrane. They are not able to penetrate the uncompromised plasma membrane of live cells. Membrane integrity viability dyes are comprised of:

  • Nucleic acid-binding dyes (this section): These viability dyes are nonfluorescent in aqueous media but exhibit increased fluorescence upon binding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) or RNA. Nucleic-acid viability dyes include SYTOX dead cell stains, propidium iodide (PI), and 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD).
  • Amine-reactive dyes (next section: Membrane integrity viability dyes (amine-reactive)): These viability dyes covalently bind to the primary amine groups available on cellular proteins that are located on the exterior and interior of cells. When bound to surface amine proteins only, the resulting signal is dim; however, when the dye enters cells with a compromised plasma membrane and reacts with interior amine cellular proteins, the resulting signal is highly intense. Amine-reactive viability dyes include the LIVE/DEAD Fixable Dead Cell Stains for flow cytometry.

PI and 7-AAD

PI and 7-AAD are known as classic DNA-binding dyes commonly used in flow cytometry; however, both can also be used in fluorescence microscopy.

PI is a nuclear and chromosome stain commonly used to detect dead cells. In aqueous solution, PI has an excitation/emission spectra of 493/636; however, upon binding DNA, its fluorescence is enhanced 20- to 30-fold to an excitation/emission maximum of 535/617. This dye is commonly used in combination with apoptosis dyes such as annexin V; more information can be found in the Cell Viability Kits section below. With the addition of RNase, PI can also be used for DNA content cell cycle analysis in fixed cells (Figure 1).

Learn more about Cell Cycle Analysis Assays

Increased BrdU incorporation of actively proliferating cells
Figure 1. Detection of proliferation in Wil2S Lymphoma B cells. Cells were treated with 10 µM 5-bromo-2´-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in culture medium for one hour, then pelleted and fixed with cold 70% ethanol. After treatment with RNase and 4 M HCl (to denature the DNA), the cells were labeled with anti-BrdU and detected using green-fluorescent Alexa Fluor 488 Goat Anti–Mouse IgG antibody. In addition, the cells were labeled with red-fluorescent propidium iodide to assess the total cellular DNA content. The cells were analyzed by flow cytometry using 488 nm excitation; the fluorescent signals were collected at ~525 nm for the Alexa Fluor 488 dye and at ~675 nm for propidium iodide. Increased BrdU incorporation is indicative of actively proliferating cells.

7-AAD is another nuclear and chromatin dye that undergoes a spectral shift after binding to DNA (Figure 2). It selectively binds to GC regions of DNA resulting in a distinct banding pattern which allows for its use in chromosome banding studies. 7-AAD can also be used in cell cycle analysis for flow cytometry, and in cells that have fixed and permeabilized.

Wheat root tips with green-stained DNA and blue-stained microtubules
Figure 2. Wheat root tips in seven stages of the cell cycle. 7-aminoactinomycin D. Panel of confocal micrographs showing cells from wheat root tips in seven stages of the cell cycle. DNA was stained with 7-aminoactinomycin D, and microtubules were labeled with an anti-ß-tubulin antibody in conjunction with a fluorescein-labeled secondary antibody. Cells vary in width from about 15 µm to about 25 µm. The stages are (from top left): interphase cortical microtubule array; pre-prophase band of microtubules (predicts future plane of division); metaphase mitotic spindle; telophase, showing early phragmoplast and cell plate; fully developed phragmoplast during cytokinesis; late cytokinesis (plane of division matching plane of earlier pre-prophase band); restoration of cortical arrays in daughter cells. Image contributed by B.E.S. Gunning, Plant Cell Biology Group, Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University. Used with permission from Gunning, B.E.S. and Steer, M.W., Plant Cell Biology: Structure and Function, Jones and Bartlett Publishers (1995).

SYTOX Dead Cell Stains

SYTOX dead cell stains are easy-to-use, cell-impermeant dyes with increased fluorescence upon binding to dsDNA. These viability dyes can be used in cells without an additional wash step and visualized with minimal background staining since they are nonfluorescent in aqueous media. Available in multiple single-color formats and compatible with multiple lasers, these dyes provide the flexibility needed for multiplex experiments and across different platforms including fluorescence microscopy (Figure 3), flow cytometry (Figure 4), and microplates.

Learn more about Nucleus/Nucleolus Structure dyes

Figure 3. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). MitoTracker Red CMXRos, SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain, biotin-XX goat anti–mouse IgG antibody and Cascade Blue NeutrAvidin biotin-binding protein. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) incubated with the fixable, mitochondrion-selective MitoTracker Red CMXRos. After staining, the cells were formaldehyde-fixed, acetone-permeabilized, treated with DNase-free RNase and counterstained using SYTOX Green nucleic acid stain. Microtubules were labeled with a mouse monoclonal anti–ß-tubulin antibody, biotin-XX goat anti–mouse IgG antibody and Cascade Blue NeutrAvidin biotin-binding protein. This photograph was taken using multiple exposures through bandpass optical filters appropriate for Texas Red dye, fluorescein and DAPI using a Nikon Labophot 2 microscope equipped with a Quadfluor epi-illumination system.
Figure 4. Viable cell gating with SYTOX Dead Cell Stains. A mixture of heat-treated and untreated human peripheral blood leukocytes was stained with Invitrogen Alexa Fluor 488 dye–conjugated anti–human CD3 antibody, R-PE–conjugated anti–human CD8 antibody, and 5 nM SYTOX Red Dead Cell Stain before analysis by flow cytometry using 488 nm and 635 nm excitation. (A) Histogram showing distribution of two cell populations—dead cells that exhibit significant Invitrogen SYTOX Red fluorescence signal, and live cells, which do not. (B) Dual-parameter plot of CD8 and CD3 staining after gating on live cells.

Membrane integrity viability dyes (amine-reactive)

Amine-reactive viability dyes are cell-impermeant and react with cellular amine proteins. On live cells, these dyes bind to extracellular primary amines and dimly fluoresce; in dead cells, they bind to intracellular amine proteins resulting in a significant increase in cellular fluorescence. Since the binding to cellular proteins is covalent, the samples can be fixed and permeabilized without losing their viability staining pattern.

Image-iT DEAD Green

Image-iT DEAD Green (Figure 5) is another easy-to-use cell-impermeant, membrane integrity dye used to identify dead cells. This viability stain can be used in cells that will undergo fixation and/or permeabilization and allows for multiplex experiments with other fluorescent dyes.

Figure 5. Single-channel viability assay with multiplexing. HeLa cells treated with camptothecin and stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue channel) for a total cell count and dead cells are stained with Image-iT DEAD Green (green channel).
 

LIVE/DEAD Fixable Dead Cell Stains

LIVE/DEAD Fixable Dead Cell Stains are cell-impermeant, amine-reactive dead cell stains optimal for use in cells that will undergo fixation and/or permeabilization. These stains are used exclusively for determining cell viability in flow cytometry (Figure 6). Available in multiple single-color formats and compatible with multiple lasers, these dyes provide the flexibility needed for multiplex experiments.

Learn more about Fixable Viability Dyes for Flow Cytometry

Two distinct fluorescence intensity peaks for live and dead cells in unfixed and fixed cells
Figure 6. Retention of LIVE/DEAD Fixable Dead Cell Stains after fixation. The LIVE/DEAD Fixable Aqua Dead Cell Stain Kit was used to differentially stain a mixture of live (left peak) and heat-treated Jurkat cells (right peak). Cells in (A) were not fixed; cells in (B) were fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde following staining. Samples were analyzed by flow cytometry using 405 nm excitation and ~525 nm emission.

Enzymatic activity substrates

Enzymatic activity substrates are fluorogenic reagents that are nonfluorescent and either react with cellular enzymes in live cells or cellular enzymes released from damaged cells to become fluorescent or colorimetric. Enzymatic activity substrates are comprised of:

  • Cell Trace Calcein AM dyes: These viability dyes are cell-permeant, fluorogenic substrates that react with intracellular enzymes in live cells to become fluorescent. Within live cells, the AM group is cleaved by active esterases, resulting in fluorescence. This AM group cannot be cleaved by dead cells. Calcein AM dyes are ideal for short-term staining since the dyes can be transported out of the cell within a few hours.
  • CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assays: These viability assays detect extracellular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released from damaged cells. CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (G6PD Release Assay) and CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay - Fluorescence are fluorescent assays that detect G6PD or LDH, respectively, by an enzymatic process that leads to the reduction of resazurin into red-fluorescent resorufin. CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay is a colorimetric assay that detects LDH by an enzymatic process that leads to the formation of a red formazan product.

Learn more about CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assays

CellTrace Calcein AM

CellTrace Calcein AM dyes are cell-permeant substrates that identify live cells. These substrates measure both enzymatic activity and membrane integrity. The enzymatic activity of live cells allows the AM group to be cleaved by esterases resulting in fluorescence, while the intact cell membrane of live cells is required for the intracellular retention of the fluorescent dye. Available with blue, violet, and green fluorescence, these dyes provide the flexibility you need for multiplex experiments and can be used with fluorescence or confocal microscopy (Figure 7) or in flow cytometry experiments (Figure 8).

Figure 7. Primary Rat Cortex Neurons (A1084001) were treated with Calcein AM and with the FluxOR Red reagent. After stimulation of the potassium channels, cell viability was determined by imaging with a FITC/Alexa Fluor 488 filter setting to detect the green emission from Calcein AM (top left panel). The potassium ion flux was detected using FluxOR Red and a TRITC/Alexa Fluor 555 filter set (top right panel). The overlay of Calcein AM and FluxOR Red confirms cell viability and potassium ion flux (bottom panel).
 

Decreased viability in drug treated BALB/c thymocytes then scatter plot of live and dead cells
Figure 8. Calcein AM Viability Dye. BALB/c thymocytes were stained with 12.5 nM Calcein AM for 30 minutes at room temperature (left). Thymocytes were kept on ice overnight (shaded histogram) or cultured overnight at 37°C without (purple) or with (blue) 1 µM dexamethasone. Thymocytes cultured overnight without dexamethasone were also stained with 7-AAD allowing further discrimination between live and dead cells (right). Total cells were used for analysis.

Cell viability assays using esterase substrates and amine-reactive dyes

The LIVE/DEAD Violet Viability/Vitality Kit provides a two-color fluorescence assay based on the measure of two essential cell health parameters: plasma membrane integrity to measure dead cells and intracellular esterase activity to measure live cells (Figure 9). CellTrace Calcein Violet AM and LIVE/DEAD Fixable Aqua fluorescent reactive dye are optimal for this application as both stains utilize the violet laser, allowing other laser lines to be used with other fluorescent dyes.

Distinct aqua-dye stained dead cells and violet-stained live cells
Figure 9. Staining of a mixture of heat-killed and untreated Jurkat cells. Jurkat cells were stained according to the protocol in the LIVE/DEAD Violet Viability/Vitality Kit. Cells were analyzed using a flow cytometer equipped with a 405 nm laser and a 450/50 nm bandpass filter for calcein violet–labeled live cells (L), and a 525/50 nm bandpass filter for the aqua dye–labeled dead cells (D).

CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assays

CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assays are simple and reliable assays for determining cytotoxicity in damaged or dying cells. CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay (Figure 10) is a colorimetric method to quantify cellular cytotoxicity; while CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay, Fluorescence (Figure 11) is a fluorescence-based method to quantify cellular cytotoxicity. Both LDH cytotoxicity assays accurately and quantitatively measure extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a cytosolic enzyme present in many different cell types, including 3D cell models. These assays can also monitor cytotoxicity over time within the same sample.

Graphs of increased LDH release with lysis solution versus water in multiple cell types

Figure 10. CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay generates highly linear results. A549 (adherent), Ramos (suspension), or HCASMC (human coronary artery smooth muscle primary) cells were plated into 96-well plates using complete medium containing serum. After an overnight incubation, the various cells were treated with water (Spontaneous LDH Release determination) or 10X Lysis Solution (Maximum LDH release determination). After treatment, the medium was removed and placed into a 96-well plate. The amount of LDH released into the medium was determined using the CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay following manufacturer’s instructions. The amount of LDH released and detected correlated very well with the number of cells per well for the various cell types tested.
 

Graphs of increased LDH release versus competitor in multiple cell types

Figure 11.CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay, fluorescence, generates highly linear results. A549 (adherent), Ramos (suspension), or HASMC (Human Artery Smooth Muscle primary) cells were plated into 96-well plates using complete medium containing serum. After an overnight incubation, the various cells were untreated (Spontaneous and Endogenous LDH Background determination) or treated with the 10X Lysis solution (Maximum LDH Release Determination). After treatment, the medium was removed and placed into 96-well plates. The amount of LDH released into the medium was determined using either the CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay, fluorescence, or the CyTox-ONE Homogenous Membrane Integrity Assay (Promega). The amount of LDH detected correlated very well with the number of cells per well. The highly purified resazurin in the CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay generated a greater than 3-fold higher fluorescence signal.
 

CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (G6PD Release Assay)

CyQUANT Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (G6PD Release Assay) monitors cytotoxicity through the release of cytosolic enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) into the cell medium from damaged cells (Figure 11). This rapid cytotoxicity assay can be completed in less than one hour and is sensitive enough to detect as few as 500 cells.

Graph of increased G6PD release in drug-treated cells, also increased with cell concentration

Figure 12. CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (G6PD Release Assay) generated linear results. Jurkat cells were treated with 10 µM camptothecin for six hours, then assayed for glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase release using the CyQUANT LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit (G6PD Release Assay), untreated control sample is shown for comparison. The fluorescence was measured in a microplate reader (excitation/emission ~530/590 nm). A background of 55 fluorescence units was subtracted from each value.

Metabolic activity reagents

Metabolic activity viability assays are live-cell, membrane permeant reagents that detect cellular indicators such as the reducing environment or cellular redox potential. Metabolic activity assays are comprised of:

  • alamarBlue/alamarBlue HS and PrestoBlue/PrestoBlue HS Cell Viability Reagents: These reagents are add-and-read, cell-permeable resazurin-based solutions that measure cell viability by using the reducing power of metabolically active cells. In live cells, resazurin is reduced to a red and highly fluorescent resorufin detectable on an absorbance- or fluorescence-based plate reader. alamarBlue HS and PrestoBlue HS have an improved purification process to remove various contaminants resulting in a >50% decrease in background fluorescence and >100% increase in signal-to-background ratio. Both assays are non-toxic and do not require cell lysis, as a result the reagent can be removed and replaced with complete growth media for further cell culturing.
  • Vybrant Cell Metabolic Assay Kit: This kit measures cell viability by reducing C12-resazurin to red-fluorescent C12-resorufin. C12-resazurin, a lipophilic version of resazurin, is more permeable to live cells and the reduced C12-resorufin product is better retained than the nonlipophilic version. This results in brighter signals and better detection limits when compared to resazurin alone.
  • CyQUANT MTT and XTT Cell Viability Assays: These viability assays are complete and optimized kits for the colorimetric detection of cell viability using the cellular redox potential in live cells. During this metabolic process, MTT is converted to an insoluble purple formazan product and XTT is converted to a water-soluble orange formazan product both of which are detectable on an absorbance-based microplate reader.

Learn more about other Metabolic assays

alamarBlue and alamarBlue HS

alamarBlue and alamarBlue HS are ready-to-use reagents to detect metabolically active cells. The alamarBlue HS purification process has been improved to reduce background fluorescence and increase signal-to-background ratio (Figure 12). alamarBlue HS is ideal for extended viability studies or when using a high cell density. Both cell viability reagents are highly sensitive, alamarBlue can detect as few as 50 cells/well and alamarBlue HS can detect as few as 20 cells/well. alamarBlue and alamarBlue HS are compatible with either a fluorescence- or absorbance-based plate reader.

Learn more about alamarBlue and alamarBlue HS Cell Viability Reagents

Bar graphs show improved signal to background with alamarBlue HS versus alamarBlue in multiple cell types
Figure 13. Performance improved with various cell types. Improved cell viability signal-to-background ratios were displayed with HCASMC (primary cells), Ramos (suspension cells), and U2OS (adherent cells) when using the alamarBlue HS cell viability reagent.

PrestoBlue and PrestoBlue HS Cell Viability Reagent

PrestoBlue and PrestoBlue HS are ready-to-use reagents to detect metabolically active cells. The PrestoBlue HS purification process has been improved to reduce background fluorescence and increase signal-to-background ratio (Figure 13). PrestoBlue HS is recommended for quick determination of viability as detection can be determined with only a 10-minute incubation. PrestoBlue HS is also highly sensitive, able to detect as few as 10 cells/well. PrestoBlue and PrestoBlue HS are compatible with either a fluorescence- or absorbance-based plate reader.

Learn more about PrestoBlue and PrestoBlue HS Cell Viability Reagents

Bar graphs shows improved signal to background with PrestoBlue HS versus alamarBlue in multiple cell types
Figure 14. Performance improvement with various cell types. Improved cell viability signal-to-background ratios were displayed with HCASMC (primary cells), Ramos (suspension cells), and U2OS (adherent cells) when using the PrestoBlue HS cell viability reagent.

Vybrant Cell Metabolic Assay Kit, with C12-resazurin

Vybrant Cell Metabolic Assay Kit determines cell viability through the reduction of nonfluorescent C12-resazurin to fluorescent C12-resorufin, with the signal of fluorescent resorufin being proportional to the number of live cells. Resazurin is nontoxic, allowing for the continuous monitoring of viability and can be multiplexed with other fluorescent dyes. Metabolic activity can be measure on a microplate reader or flow cytometer (Figure 15).

Distinct population of red-fluorescent live cells along with green-fluorescent dead and dying cells
Figure 15. Vybrant Cell Metabolic Assay Kit. Flow cytometric analysis of Jurkat cells (T-cell leukemia, human) stained with C12-resazurin. Cells were incubated with 0.1 µM C12-resazurin, a component of the Vybrant Cell Metabolic Assay Kit, and 1 mM SYTOX Green for 15 minutes, then analyzed using 488 nm excitation. Healthy (live) cells reduce C12-resazurin to red-fluorescent C12-resorufin and exclude the cell-impermeant green-fluorescent SYTOX Green. Dead cells show little reduction of the C12-resazurin, but strong staining by SYTOX Green. Cells indicated in the figure as dying are of indeterminate viability, showing both reduction of C12-resazurin and compromised membrane integrity.

CyQUANT MTT Cell Viability Assay

CyQUANT MTT is a well-established and popular colorimetric assay that determines cell viability using the cellular redox potential in live cells. Metabolically active cells convert the water-soluble MTT reagent to an insoluble purple formazan product that is detected on a microplate reader by measuring absorbance at 570 nm (Figure 16).

Learn more about CyQUANT MTT Cell Viability Assay

Graph shows increased absorbance correlates with increased number of live cells
Figure 16. CyQUANT MTT Cell Viability Assay. Jurkat cells were diluted to the indicated cell numbers in 100 µL volumes, delivered to the wells of a microplate, and incubated for 4 hours with the CyQUANT MTT Cell Viability Assay. Absorbance measurements at 570 nm were made using a microplate reader.

CyQUANT XTT Cell Viability Assay

CyQUANT XTT is a highly reproducible colorimetric assay that determines cell viability using the cellular redox potential in live cells. Metabolically active cells convert the water-soluble XTT reagent to a water-soluble orange-colored formazan product that is detected on a microplate reader by measuring absorbance at 450 nm (Figure 17).

Learn more about CyQUANT XTT Cell Viability Assay

Bar graphs of signal to background ratio correlates with the number of cells in multiple cell types
Figure 17. CyQUANT XTT performs across various cell types. A549 (adherent), Jurkat (suspension), or HASMCs (human aortic smooth muscle primary cells) were plated at concentrations of 10,000, 5,000, 1,000, or 0 (to be used as the control) cells per well of a 96-well plate. After an overnight incubation, cell viability was determined using the CyQUANT XTT Cell Viability Assay. The XTT Reagent/Electron Coupling Reagent mixture was added and cells incubated for 4 hours at 37°C in a CO2 incubator. The absorbance was read at 450 and 660 nm using the Varioskan LUX instrument. The specific absorbance signals were determined.


Ready-to-use viability dyes

Ready-to-Use Viability Dyes provide an easy-to-use, liquid formulation in a convenient dropper bottle format for your everyday cell viability detection needs. Stable at room temperature, these reagents allow for storage at your bench, microscope, or flow cytometer for easy access. Rapid staining of cells with no washing required allows for convenient use throughout your experiment.

ReadyProbes reagents are available in blue and red fluorescence for use in fluorescence microscopy (Figure 18) and flow cytometry. These reagents are also available in multi-parameter kits (see Selection guide of cell viability assays).

FFPE rat uterine tissue stained with red-fluorescent NucRed Dead 647 ReadyProbes reagent
Figure 18. NucRed Dead 647 ReadyProbes reagent. An 8 µm section of FFPE rat uterine tissue was deparaffinized and stained with NucRed Dead 647 ReadyProbes Reagent for 20 minutes then rinsed with PBS and mounted in ProLong Gold antifade. Imaged using a 20X objective and SemRock Far Red Briteline filter set.

Ready Flow reagents are exclusively used to determine cell viability in flow cytometry experiments (Figure 19). Compatible with the blue, green, yellow, and red laser lines, these dyes offer the flexibility for multiplex experiments.

Learn more about Ready-to-Use Flow Cytometry Reagents

Cell viability kits

Multi-parameter assays contain multiple dyes within one convenient kit. Cell viability kits offer the convenience of determining viability by detecting membrane integrity in both live and dead cells, or through a combination of cellular function and membrane integrity. Each kit also provides the ability to be multiplexed with additional fluorescent dyes.

Cell viability assays using membrane integrity dyes to identify early apoptosis

7-AAD and PI can be used with Annexin V to distinguish early apoptotic cells from dead cells (Figure 20, Figure 21). Early apoptosis is measured using fluorescently labeled Annexin V which detects phosphatidylserine expression on the cell membrane, while the addition of 7-AAD or PI identifies dead and necrotic cells.

Learn more about Annexin V staining

Learn more about Apoptosis Assays

Increased green apoptotic cells in drug-treated cells; also shows red dead cells

Figure 20. Identification of apoptotic cells using PI and Annexin V. Jurkat cells (T cell leukemia, human) treated with 10 μM camptothecin for 4 hours (right panel) or untreated (as control, left panel). Cells were then treated with Annexin V, Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate to identify apoptotic cells and with propidium iodide to identify dead cells, followed by flow cytometric analysis. Note that the camptothecin-treated cells (right panel) have a higher percentage of apoptotic cells (indicated by an “A”) than the basal level of apoptosis seen in the control cells (left panel). V = viable cells, D = dead cells.
 

Distinct populations of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead cells
Figure 21. Identification of apoptotic cells using Annexin V and 7-AAD. Mouse thymocytes were prepared as a single cell suspension and incubated overnight at 37°C in medium. Cells were harvested and stained with the Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit PE. Total cells were used for analysis.

Cell viability assays using membrane integrity dyes and mitochondrial membrane potential

HCS Mitochondrial Health Kit (Figure 22) measures two important cell-health parameters: mitotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Mitotoxicity is measured with the MitoHealth stain which detects changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, with loss of potential resulting in loss of signal. Cytotoxicity is measured with Image-It DEAD Green, a cell-impermeant dye that crosses the compromised plasma membrane of dead or dying cells and binds DNA to become highly fluorescent. Hoechst 3342 is a blue-fluorescent nuclear segmentation dye that binds DNA in live and dead cells.

Drug-treated cells with green dead cells, red mitochondria, and blue nucleus; also graph of EC50 values
Figure 22. Multiplex analysis of cell loss, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasma membrane permeability. HepG2 cells were plated on collagen-coated plates, treated with various doses of valinomycin for 24 hr, and stained with the Image-iT DEAD Green and MitoHealth stains (components of the HCS Mitochondrial Health Kit) for 30 min. The cells were then fixed and counterstained with Hoechst nuclear stain. Imaging and analysis were performed on the Thermo Scientific Cellomics ArrayScan VTI. (A) Images at selected concentrations of valinomycin. (B) The concentrations of valinomycin were used to calculate EC50 values for cell loss, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasma membrane permeability.

LIVE/DEAD cell viability assays

LIVE/DEAD cell viability assays simultaneously detect live and dead populations based on membrane integrity, esterase activity, and/or structural segmentation. These fluorescence-based assays are available for use in cells, bacteria, yeast, and fungi. Specific assays can be used across one or multiple detection platforms including fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, or microplate reader. Each kit contains fluorescent dyes that can range from blue to near-IR emission allowing for multiplex capabilities.

Learn more about LIVE/DEAD Cell Viability Assays

Drug-treated cells showing red dead cells and green live cells
Figure 23. Tamoxifen-Treated Hep G2 Cells Stained Using the LIVE/DEAD Cell Imaging Kit. Hep G2 cells grown in 96-well microplates were treated with 10 uM tamoxifen overnight, then stained with LIVE/DEAD Cell Imaging kit and imaged on a FLoid Cell Imaging Station. Bright field overlay on dead cells stained red and live cells stained green.

Citations

Resources

Flow Cytometry Panel Builder – Design your flow cytometry panel with this online tool for a simplified, customizable experience to fit your needs

Fluorescence SpectraViewer – Online tool for visualization of the excitation and emission of fluorescent reagents; allows for checking spectral compatibility for multiple fluorophores.

Cell Viability, Proliferation and Cell Cycle Information – Find educational resources such as application notes, webinars, videos, articles, and more that cover the use of many of our reagents and kits for monitoring cell function.

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