Table 22.1—Characteristics and selected applications of Molecular Probes fast-response probes.

Dyes (Cat #) Structure (Charge) Optical Response Selected Applications
Di-4-ANEPPS (D1199)
Di-8-ANEPPS (D3167)
Di-2-ANEPEQ (D6923)
Di-3-ANEPPDHQ (D36801)
Di-4-ANEPPDHQ (D36802)
Styryl (cationic or zwitterionic) FAST; fluorescence excitation ratio 440/505 nm decreases upon membrane hyperpolarization
  • Combined optical potentiometric and electrophysiological measurements ref
  • Combined potentiometric and Ca2+ measurements ref
  • Imaging electrical activity from intact heart tissues ref
  • Mapping of membrane potentials along neurons ref and muscle fibers ref
  • Membrane potential changes in response to pharmacological stimuli ref
  • Two-photon excitation microscopy ref
RH 237 (S1109)
RH 414 (T1111)
RH 421 (S1108)
RH 795 (R649)
Styryl (cationic or zwitterionic) FAST; fluorescence decreases upon membrane depolarization
  • Electrical activity of cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue ref
  • Functional tracing of neurons ref
  • Membrane potentials evoked by visual ref and auditory ref stimuli