Table 14.1 Techniques for loading molecules into the cytoplasm.
|Method of Plasma Membrane Breach||Size of Molecules Loaded (MW) *|
|Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP)||150,000; (DNA)|
|Influx pinocytic cell-loading reagent (I14402)||150,000|
|α-Toxin of Staphylococcus aureus||1000|
|Red blood cell fusion||300,000|
|Cationic lipids (Lipofectamine reagents)||(DNA)|
|Whole-cell patch clamping||Very high|
|Carbon nanotubes and nanowires||150,000; (DNA)|
|Scrape loading||500,000; (DNA)|
|Microprojectile bombardment||10,000; (DNA)|
|Electroporation †||150,000; (DNA)|
|* Molecular weight (MW) of largest molecules reported loaded (DNA is listed separately if it has been successfully introduced by a technique). † We recommend the Neon® Transfection System (www.invitrogen.com/neon) for efficient electroporation of cultured cell lines, primary cells and stem cells.|
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.