Table 23.2 Fluorescence excitation sources.

Source Principal Lines (nm)
Mercury-arc lamp 366, 405, 436, 546, 578 *
Xenon-arc lamp 250–1000 *
Tungsten–halogen lamp 350–1000 *
Violet diode laser 405
Helium–cadmium laser 325, 442
Argon-ion laser 457, 488, 514
Nd:YAG laser 532 †
Helium–neon laser 543, 594, 633
Yellow diode laser 561
Krypton-ion laser 568, 647
Red diode laser 635
* Continuous white-light source. † Frequency-doubled principal line output.