Table 13.2 Spectral properties of some lipid probes.
Fluorophore Labels for Lipid Probes
|Spectral Property||Pyrene||DPH||NBD||BODIPY FL|
|Ex/Em (nm) *||340/376||360/430||470/530||507/513|
|QY (τ) †||0.6 (>100 nanoseconds)||0.8 (4–8 nanoseconds)||0.32 (5–10 nanoseconds)||0.9 (6 nanoseconds)|
|Concentration dependence||Excimer emission (~470 nm) at high concentrations.||Self-quenched at high concentrations.||Self-quenched at high concentrations.||Excimer emission (~620 nm) at high concentrations.|
|Environmental sensitivity||Very sensitive to quenching by oxygen. Essentially nonfluorescent in water.||Essentially nonfluorescent in water.||Essentially nonfluorescent in water.||Relatively insensitive. Strongly fluorescent in both aqueous and lipid environments.|
|* Typical fluorescence excitation and emission maxima for membrane-intercalated probes. † QY = fluorescence quantum yield; τ = fluorescence decay lifetime. Typical values for membrane-intercalated probes are listed. These values may show significant environment-dependent variations.|
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